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When were you able to resolve a problem within another code : r Job Satisfaction.The Motor Car A There are now over million motor vehicles in the world - and the number is rising by more than 40 million each year.
The average distance driven by car users is growing too - from 8 km a day per person in western Europe in to 25 km a day in This dependence on motor vehicles has given rise to major problems, including environmental pollution, depletion of oil resources, traffic congestion and safety. B While emissions from new cars are far less harmful than they used to be, city streets and motorways are becoming more crowded than ever, often with older trucks, buses and taxis, which emit excessive levels of smoke and fumes.
This concentration of vehicles makes air quality in urban areas unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to breathe. Even Moscow has joined the list of capitals afflicted by congestion and traffic fumes. In Mexico City, vehicle pollution is a major health hazard.
C Until a hundred years ago, most journeys were in the 20 km range, the distance conveniently accessible by horse. Heavy freight could only be carried by water or rail. The invention of the motor vehicle brought personal mobility to the masses and made rapid freight delivery possible over a much wider area. Today about 90 percent of inland freight in the United Kingdom is carried by road. Clearly, the world cannot revert to the horse-drawn wagon. Can it avoid being locked into congested and polluting ways of transporting people and goods?
D In Europe, most cities are still designed for the old modes of transport. Adaptation to the motor car has involved adding ring roads, one-way systems and parking lots. In the United States, more land is assigned to car use than to housing. Urban sprawl means that life without a car is next to impossible.
Mass use of motor vehicles has also killed or injured millions of people. Other social effects have been blamed on the car such as alienation and aggressive human behaviour. E A study by the European Federation for Transport and Environment found that car transport is seven times as costly as rail travel in terms of the external social costs it entails such as congestion, accidents, pollution, loss of cropland and natural habitats, depletion of oil resources, and so on.
Yet cars easily surpass trains or buses as a flexible and convenient mode of personal transport. It is unrealistic to expect people to give up private cars in favour of mass transit.
F Technical solutions can reduce the pollution problem and increase the fuel efficiency of engines. But fuel consumption and exhaust emissions depend on which cars are preferred by customers and how they are driven. Many people buy larger cars than they need for daily purposes or waste fuel by driving aggressively. Besides, global car use is increasing at a faster rate than the improvement in emissions and fuel efficiency which technology is now making possible.
G One solution that has been put forward is the long-term solution of designing cities and neighbourhoods so that car journeys are not necessary - all essential services being located within walking distance or easily accessible by public transport.
Not only would this save energy and cut carbon dioxide emissions, it would also enhance the quality of community life, putting the emphasis on people instead of cars. Good local government is already bringing this about in some places. But few democratic communities are blessed with the vision - and the capital - to make such profound changes in modern lifestyles.
H A more likely scenario seems to be a combination of mass transit systems for travel into and around cities, with small 'low emission' cars for urban use and larger hybrid or lean burn cars for use elsewhere. Electronically tolled highways might be used to ensure that drivers pay charges geared to actual road use.
Better integration of transport systems is also highly desirable - and made more feasible by modern computers. But these are solutions for countries which can afford them. In most developing countries, old cars and old technologies continue to predominate. Questions Reading Passage 39 has eight paragraphs A-H.
Which paragraphs concentrate on the following information? Write the appropriate letters A-H in boxes on your answer sheet. Answer: NO As most people spend a major part of their life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Model Answer :. There is no doubt that most adults spend the majority of their day at work.
Thus, it is extremely important that their job is both rewarding and fulfilling. In this essay, I will examine factors related to job satisfaction and how realistic these factors are. First of all, the most important reason that people work is for the money.
IELTS Listening Practice Tests
However, job satisfaction is not only limited to financial reward. The office environment and the long term prospect of the career path are equally important. For example, many artists find it difficult to make a living even though they may feel lucky to be doing what they love. So, in order to have a highly satisfied career, a person needs to be doing a job that they enjoy, working for a company with great environmentand getting paid for what they deserve.
All these components are essential to achieving job satisfaction. In conclusion, it is very difficult to get an ideal job that satisfies all the requirements of job satisfaction. Part 1 greeting what is Hi All, I've compiled a list of high frequency topics that have been asked repeatedly in April so far Write about Bangalore,India Part 1 was abt Your blog is Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.
Toggle navigation. Write about the following topic As most people spend a major part of their life at work, job satisfaction is an important element of individual wellbeing. What factors contribute to job satisfaction? How realistic is the expectation of job satisfaction for all workers? Write at least words. How to brainstorm and organise ideas for writing task 2? Say "Hi" on our social media channels Share this.
Related Articles. Leave a reply Click here to cancel the reply Your email address will not be published. Comment Name Email Website.The remainder of this guide will focus on learning the most frequently used IELTS speaking topics for speaking part 1 - 3, listening to band 9 speaking sample answers, and learning important IELTS speaking tips and resources for your success. Use the table of contents below to quickly find what you're looking for. The IELTS speaking test can be a little intimidating at first, especially because you'll be tested live in front of your examiner.
Due to this live format, finding free speaking topics with sample responses can be difficult, but don't worry we have you covered.
Before practicing with our IELTS speaking questions, let's take a quick look at the speaking test and how it works. The speaking test lasts about 11 - 15 minutesconsisting of 3 parts. Please note the speaking topics for Greeting and Part 1 are the same, so they are considered only 1 part, but we have separated them for your convenience. When you take the speaking test and walk into the examination room, the examiner does not start off with tough IELTS speaking questions, instead, they start slow with greetings.
Having said that, let's take a quick look at some greeting speaking samples with band 9 answers. IELTS Speaking part 1 lasts between minutesincludes around speaking questionsand about familiar topics such as your job, your studies, your family, your hometown, your accommodation, etc.
Below are some examples of what you could be asked. Part 1 questions might best be described as questions that imitate small talk between two strangers or acquaintances.
They are not very in-depth, but don't let these questions fool you into thinking you don't need to prepare for them. Just a little preparation can go a long way and you'll thank us for making you do it! You'll also find some tips on how to prepare for part 1 questions later in this post. The topic is selected for you and will be given to you on a card Candidate Task Card. You will then have 1 minute to prepare your answer and then a maximum of 2 minutes to speak.
A pencil and paper will be provided for you to make notes. Once your two minutes of speaking time is finished, it's possible the test examiner will conclude this part of the test by asking you a couple of simple questions related to your part 2 answer. These are sometimes known as rounding off questionssince they help "round off," or complete your conversation.By now you should be able to finish each passage in no more than 5 minutes …. Europe, and indeed all the major industrialised nations, is currently going through a recession.
This obviously has serious implications for companies and personnel who find themselves victims of the downturn. As Britain apparently eases out of recession, there are also potentially equally serious implications for the companies who survive, associated with the employment and recruitment market in general. During a recession, voluntary staff turnover is bound to fall sharply. Staff who have been with a company for some years will clearly not want to risk losing their accumulated redundancy rights.
Consequently, even if there is little or no job satisfaction in their current post, they are most likely to remain where they are, quietly sitting it out and waiting for things to improve. In Britain, this situation has been aggravated by the length and nature of the recession — as may also prove to be the case in the rest of Europe and beyond. In the past, companies used to take on staff at the lower levels and reward loyal employees with internal promotions.
This reduction in the layers of management has led to flatter hierarchies, which, in turn, has reduced promotion prospects within most companies. Whereas ambitious personnel had become used to regular promotion, they now find their progress is blocked.
This situation is compounded by yet another factor. When staff at any level are taken on, it is usually from outside and promotion is increasingly through career moves between companies. Recession has created a new breed of bright young graduates, much more self-interested and cynical than in the past. They tend to be more wary, sceptical of what is on offer and consequently much tougher negotiators. Those who joined companies directly from education feel the effects most strongly and now feel uncertain and insecure in mid-life.
In many cases, this has resulted in staff dissatisfaction. Moreover, management itself has contributed to this general ill-feeling and frustration.
The caring image of the recent past has gone and the fear of redundancy is often used as the prime motivator. As a result of all these factors, when the recession eases and people find more confidence, there will be an explosion of employees seeking new opportunities to escape their current jobs. This will be led by younger, less-experienced employees and the hard-headed young graduates.
Past experience, however, suggests that, once triggered, the expansion in recruitment will be very rapid.
The problem which faces many organisations is one of strategic planning; of not knowing who will leave and who will stay. Often it is the best personnel who move on whilst the worst cling to the little security they have. This is clearly a problem for companies, who need a stable core on which to build strategies for future growth. Whilst this expansion in the recruitment market is likely to happen soon in Britain, most employers are simply not prepared. With the loss of middle management, in a static marketplace, personnel management and recruitment are often conducted by junior personnel.Jump to navigation.
Why do some people enjoy going to work and others loathe it? It depends on a variety of key factors, many of which are in your control.
Read how you can either find the job that is best suited to meet your needs or learn to find fulfillment in your current job. Why do some people get excited to go to work while others loathe Monday mornings?IP3T4S4 Job satisfaction study
Understandably, we all need to make a living but it seems as though some are enjoying the process more than others. Fortunately, job satisfaction is dependent on a variety of factors, many of which are within your control. With a little effort, you can either find the job that is best suited to meet your individual needs or learn to find fulfillment in the one you already have.
According to a recent survey conducted by The Conference Board, This increase can be attributed to greater job security and satisfaction with regards to other career development areas. While the percentage of satisfied workers has steadily increased since its lowest point inwhen only In Unemployment, disappointing wages, and other economic factors have all contributed to job dissatisfaction, which may help explain the lower survey numbers we are seeing now in comparison to the late 80s.
The survey suggests age and income may play also important roles in job satisfaction. Inemployees between the ages 35 to 44 reported the highest job satisfaction at Workers under 25 years of age were least satisfied at Job satisfaction or a lack thereof influences not only employees but also the organizations they feel dissatisfied with. Dissatisfied workers experience lower productivity in the workplace, poorer performance, more job stress, and higher turnover rates.
Moreover, low job satisfaction can result in low morale and low loyalty to the company itself, according to an article published in the International Journal of Learning and Development. So how can you experience more job satisfaction? It may be found in a combination of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors.
Intrinsic job satisfaction is a result of feeling content with the work itself and the responsibilities that go along with it. Extrinsic job satisfaction has more to do with the work conditions such as salary, job security, and your relationships with coworkers and supervisors. A study conducted in Heidelberg, Germany, examined the effects that intrinsic and extrinsic components had on job satisfaction for dentists.
Additionally, the results of a survey done by the Journal of Healthcare Management among rehabilitation professionals showed that professional growth and having personal values in line with company values outweighed pay when it comes to job satisfaction. When you are engaged in your work, you are present, focused, and productive. However, according to a Gallup poll51 percent of workers reported not being engaged at work, many of which were millennials.
One reason you may not be engaging in your work is because you may not feel you are utilizing your skills and abilities to your fullest potential. Undoubtedly, people are naturally more engaged in work that puts their talents to good use. But experts have taken notice of a misconception: to truly enjoy work and become fully engaged, you have to make a drastic career change, giving everything up for a bigger purpose. The truth is, your talents can be utilized in any job you find yourself in.
Sure, you may be better suited for some jobs more than others but by engaging fully in work and recognizing how your individual strengths positively impact others, you can bring meaning and purpose to any role.
Being aware of how your job is directly supporting a larger outcome could encourage you to stay engaged and remain motivated. Respect, praise, and appreciation.
Regardless of the job, you want to feel respected in the workplace as well as appreciated for the work you do. The SHRM emphasizes constructive feedback and open communication in the workplace as one way to encourage respect amongst employers and employees.You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Most people spend a great deal of time at work; therefore job satisfaction is an important part of being happy in life.
What elements are required for job satisfaction? It is possible for all workers to achieve job satisfaction. Give reasons for your answer using your own ideas and experience.
Write at least words. Model Answer 1: From the dawn of the time, most people allotted greatly of their time working. Throughout the history, a lot of researchers tried to come up with a definition and ways to achieve job satisfaction. Being satisfied with one's job is an integral part for you to have a happy life and great physical and emotional well-being. This will be proven on how job satisfaction differs from one individual and another.
It is greatly affected by one's definition of satisfaction and their expectation on the job. To begin with, nowadays people's lives greatly depend on their income and benefits from their job. Salary seems to be an essential element in considering their happiness and contentment to one's job. Another contributing element is the working environment. A healthy working environment consists of a good relationship between the employee and the employer, as well as their colleague, this has been an important role in attaining job satisfaction.
In addition, without any doubt having a good time at work is one to take into consideration. To be more specific no one can be satisfied with their job if they are having an unhealthy relationship with their colleagues, this will definitely give them a lot of stress and will soon affect the person's job performance. Last but not the least, career growth opportunity is also one of the elements to be considered to attain a great job satisfaction that triggers the employee's happiness and making them realise their potentials.
Apparently, there are so many contributing elements to attain job satisfaction. But it is really possible for one to be satisfied with their job? In my own point of view, I would definitely agree that one can be satisfied on their job depending on their definition of satisfaction and depending on their reasonable and attainable expectation on their work.
In my case, if I have to dependent on my salary and benefits for my job satisfaction it will be certain that I'm unsatisfied with my current job. As no one will be satisfied with their job if that will be their basis, because a good financial compensation and an excellent benefit is just a prize for all your hard work. Furthermore, working long hours and having a low salary will be out of the picture if you will just learn how to love your work and enjoy what you are doing.
To sum it up, although it is hard to be fully satisfied on one's job, it would be great if you will focus on the positive aspect of your work ad ignore the negative side of it, in order for you to achieve job satisfaction and happiness in life. Many people try their hard to meet the job satisfaction. Thus, they may spend most of their time working. Although work satisfaction can be extremely subjective and can differ among people, yet there will be some factors leading to work satisfaction, for instances achievement, reward, better working environment, nice co-workers, career prospect and suitable job responsibilities.
To begin with, achievement is one of the important elements contributing to job satisfaction. Achievement can be addressed as fulfilled goals of an organization or job.
When someone has successfully obtained the purpose of his job, emotionally he will get such satisfaction. For example, in arranging a social event, the organizer may feel satisfied and respectful when the event runs smoothly and successfully reaches the peak of the event.
In addition, reward also may contribute to job satisfaction.